Cannabinoids in Clinical Practice

Components of Cannabis


Terpenes (pronounced tur-peens) are the fragrant essential oils found in all plants and are responsible for the different tastes and scents. The cannabis plant consists of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these aromatic organic hydrocarbons are terpenes. Terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various effects. Terpenes may also modulate the effects of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD concentrations.

Administering & Dosing

Government of Canada:

The College of Family Physicians of Canada:

Other Articles & Research

Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing Dr. Caroline MacCallum, Dr. Ethan B. Russo (2018)

“Is medical cannabis safe for my patients?” A practical review of cannabis safety considerations Dr. Caroline MacCallum (2021)

Consensus recommendations on dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain: results of a modified Delphi process Dr. Caroline MacCallum (2021)

Tapering Medications


The U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

US Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defence

McMaster University

Harm Reduction Journal

Other Articles & Research

Consensus-based recommendations for titrating cannabinoids and tapering opioids for chronic pain control Internation Journal of Clinical Practice (2021)

Potential Drug Interactions

Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ)

Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction:

Government of Canada:

Other Articles & Research

Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug–Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use Journal of Clinical Medicine (2019)